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Effect of Active and Passive Smoking on Heavy Metals Toxic and Antioxidant Trace Elements

D. Viroonudomphol 1, L.Suwanton 2, U. Pinyosirikul 2, S. Satsue 2, and T. Harnroongroj 3
1. Siam University, Faculty of Nursing, Bangkok, Thailand
2. Mahidol University, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Medical Technology, Bangkok, Thailand
3. Mahidol University, Department of Tropical Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand
Abstract—Smoking is not only associated with decreased concentrations of several antioxidant vitamins and trace elements but also increased morbidity and mortality risk of diseases. Those due to heavy metal, other toxic and antioxidant trace elements in tobacco smoke are not sufficiently emphasized. Tobacco smoking influences the concentrations of several elements in some organs. We sought to determine the relationship between the known effects of some trace elements and other biochemically important elements (cadium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn)) which are linked with smoking. Cigarette smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements not only to the smokers but also, through passive smoking, to nonsmokers. Studies were carried out on 150 smokers (50 industrial cigarette smokers, 50 passive smokers and 50 local tobacco smokers) compared with 50 nonsmoking controls. Levels of whole blood Pb and Cd were significantly higher in smokers than in controls. Whereas Cr, Se, and Zn levels were significantly lower among smokers than controls. No significant differences of Hg and Cu were found between both groups. For dietary intake assessment, smokers consumed significantly less energy from carbohydrate, fat compared to controls, while energy derived from protein did not differ between groups. Moreover, smokers consumed less dietary fiber and vitamins compared with controls. Increasing whole blood toxic trace elements in healthy smokers may be explained by low antioxidant trace elements and vitamins that lead to develop oxidative stress and diseases and increased turnover or breakdown of vitamins and micronutrients. Therefore public health should not only aim for smoking cessation, but also concern about diet in terms of vitamin and trace element content.

Index Terms—smoking; heavy metal; toxic and antioxidant trace elements

Cite: D. Viroonudomphol, L.Suwanton, U. Pinyosirikul, S. Satsue, and T. Harnroongroj, "Effect of Active and Passive Smoking on Heavy Metals Toxic and Antioxidant Trace Elements," Journal of Medical and Bioengineering, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 58-62, February 2016. Doi: 10.12720/jomb.5.1.58-62
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