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Optical Mapping with a Precise Image Registration to Observe Late Phase 3 EAD

Ignacio Hernández1, Tatsuhiko Arafune2, Nitaro Shibata3 , Masatoshi Yamazaki4, Haruo Honjo4, and Ichiro Sakuma5
1.Facultad de medicina de la UASLP/Dept. of physiology, SLP, México
2.The University of Tokyo, Dept. of Bioengineering, School of Engineering, Tokyo, Japan
3.Shinjuku Mitsui Building Clinic, Tokyo, Japan
4.Nagoya University, Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Nagoya, Japan
5.The University of Tokyo, Dept. of Precision Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokyo, Japan
Abstract—Newly mechanisms of abnormal automaticity named as “late phase 3 early after depolarization (EAD)” was suggested recently, but it was still not fully analyzed experimentally yet. The aim of this study was to analyze the focal activities of late phase 3 EAD and clarify ventricular fibrillation (VF) reinitiation mechanisms. Methods and Results On a pathological heart specimen, we dosed Isoproterenol and Nicorandil to isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart. Membrane potential (Vm) and intracellular calcium (Cai2+) measurements were conducted using a simultaneous dual optical mapping system with high spatial resolution and an accurate image registration. In this research we observed the Vm and Cai2+ wave-front propagation of postshock activity and reinitiated VF after strong electric shock against VF induced by burst pacing protocol. In addition, the location where the VF likely arises from late phase 3 EAD was identified. Conclusions Evidence of late phase 3 EAD were captured, and included: (1) focal point as origin of reinitiated VF on 2D mapping image was measured, (2) Cai2+ upstroke was faster than Vm depolarization at focal point.

Index Terms—optical mapping, arrhythmia, abnormal automaticity, calcium mapping, late phase 3 EAD

Cite: Ignacio Hernández, Tatsuhiko Arafune, Nitaro Shibata, Masatoshi Yamazaki, Haruo Honjo, and Ichiro Sakuma, "Optical Mapping with a Precise Image Registration to Observe Late Phase 3 EAD," Journal of Medical and Bioengineering, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 40-46, February 2015. Doi: 10.12720/jomb.4.1.40-46
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